A very large variety of sheet-metal forming processes is used in modern sheet-metal press-working shop practice. Many of these deformation processes, used in making aircraft, automobiles, and other products,use complex equipment that is derived from the latest discoveries in science and technology. With the ever-increasing knowledge of science and technology, future deformation processes promise to be even more complex to satisfy the demand for more productivity, lower cost, and greater precision. However, for all their advantages, the more sophisticated deformation processes of today have not replaced the need for basic sheet-metal forming processes and dies.
This book draws on the author’s 30-plus years of experience as an engineer and provides a com-
plete guide to modern sheet-metal forming processes and die design- still the most commonly used
manufacturing methodology for the mass production of complex, high-precision parts. Much more prac-tical than theoretical, the book covers the “hows” and“whys” of product analysis, and the mechanisms of blanking, punching, bending, deep drawing, stretching, material economy, strip design, movement of metal during stamping, and tooling design. Readers will find numerous ilustrations, tables, and charts to aid in die design and manufacturing processes; Formulas and calculations needed for vari-ous die operations and performance evaluation are included; and designations, characteristics, and typical applications of various carbon and alloy steels for different die components are evaluated.
The book concentrates on simple, practical engineering methods rather than complex numerical tech-niques to provide the practicing engineer, student, technician, and die maker with usable approaches to sheet-metal forming processes and die design.
The first part of the book deals with the structures of metals and the fundamental aspects of the
mechanical behavior of metals. Knowledge of structures is necessary to controlling and predicting the behavior and performance of metals in sheet-metal forming processes.
The second part of the book covers all aspects of forming sheet metal. It presents the fundamental
sheet-metal forming operations of shearing, blanking and punching, bending, stretching, and deep draw-ing. Mechanics of various drawing processes indicate ways in which the deformation, loads, and process
limits can be calculated for press forming and deep drawing operations. The book includes various draw-ing processes (nosing, expanding, dimpling, spinning and flexible die forming) mostly used in the aircraft and aerospace industry.
Dies are very important to the overall mass production picture, so they are discussed in the last sec-tion of the book, which presents a complete picture of the knowledge and skills needs for the effectivedesign of dies for sheet-metal forming processes described. Special attention is given to:
●Formulas and calculations needed for various die parts.
●Rules of thumb and innovative approaches to the subject.
●Properties and typical applications of selected tool and die materials for various die parts.
Although the book provides many examples of calculations, ilustrations, and tables to aid in sheet-
metal forming processes, die design, and die manufacturing, it should be evident that it is not possible to present all the data, tables, statistics, and other information needed to design complicated dies and other tools for sheet-metal forming in one text. However, the book endeavors to provide most of the information needed by a die designer in practical situations.
The author owes much to many people. No book can be written in a vacuum. I am grateful to my wife,who understands my need for long periods of isolation. I also wish to express my deepest appreciation andthanks for the competent work of Em Turner Chitty, who labored countless hours at editing and proof-reading. Finally, I wish to thank my English language teacher from The University ofTennessee, Anwar F.Accawi, who encouraged me to begin writing this book.